VIEW Systems Key Technologies
VIEW Micro-Metrology systems achieve their high accuracy, reliability, and throughput from nine core technologies:
- Transport Design
- Ronchi Grid
- Digital Megapixel Camera
- Continuous Image Capture (CIC)
- Area Multi-Focus (AMF)
VIEW Micro-Metrology systems achieve high accuracy and high operating speed by integrating proven materials and sound mechanical designs with state of the art motion control systems. The resulting system is highly accurate and repeatable, and is then fine tuned using non-linear error mapping.
All VIEW Micro-Metrology systems are built on a robust platform using carefully selected materials. Granite and stabilized cast iron form the base and support structures for the X, Y, and Z axis motions. These materials are thermally stable and can be machined to the required straightness and flatness.
Precision guiderails and reciprocating ball-bearing slides are used to guide the X and Y axis tables. For larger travel systems, the X and Y axis motions are completely separate, ensuring that neither influences the other when moving under load.
Direct drive servo motors are used for the Benchmark products, while non-contact linear motors are used for the Summit and Pinnacle systems. Linear motors provide very high acceleration and speeds, but because they do not contact the moving parts of the system, do not influence the straightness of motion.
Assembled systems are error mapped by measuring a certified grid plate with features spaced every 10 or 20 mm. By comparing the measured locations of each feature to their known, certified locations, a 2-dimensional error map is created that ensures the entire range of travel is calibrated and compensated for local variations in the accuracy of the motion system.
All VIEW Micro-Metrology systems use our exclusive Dual Magnification Optics System to provide accurate images under a wide variety of lighting conditions.
The Dual magnification optics system provides two internal magnification multipliers — “Low” magnification is a 1X multiple of the front lens, while “High” magnification is a 4X multiple. Both magnification images are always present; selecting one camera or the other determines the magnification image that is used for measurement. The choice of low or high magnification is instantaneous and requires no movement of any optical element so there is no change in calibration or datum references. This makes for a highly accurate and repeatable system.
The dual magnification optics system also provides a direct through-the-lens surface light, an optional Ronchi Grid pattern projection for increased focus resolution, and provisions for a through-the-lens laser for precise height and contour measurements.
The front objective lens may be selected for the application at hand. A lower magnification provides a larger field of view, while a higher magnification provides higher resolution. VIEW Micro-Metrology offers a choice of front lens magnifications including 0.8X, 1X, 2.5X, 5X, and 10X.
All VIEW Micro-Metrology systems are equipped with high brightness LED illuminators. Back-light and through-the-lens surface light are standard on all machines. During programming and automatic measurements, the light source and intensity for each measurement may be programmed to best illuminate the feature of interest.
For surface features that are at an angle with respect to the X-Y plane, VIEW Micro-Metrology’s Programmable Ring Light (PRL) may be used. In addition to programmable intensity, the PRL offers three unique degrees of freedom in lighting the scene:
- The direction of the illumination may be selected.
- The angle of incidence of the light may be selected.
- The color of the illumination may be selected.
VIEW Micro-Metrology’s Ronchi (projected grid) autofocus system is designed for situations where there is little or no surface texture visible to the camera, making traditional autofocus difficult. The system projects a grid of lines onto the part surface and then measures the sharpness of the grid image. Ronchi Grid can make a difference with low contrast video.
Through-the-Lens (TTL) Laser Integrated Laser Option
VIEW Micro-Metrology systems support a variety of laser sensors that are implemented either through-the-lens (TTL) or mounted at an offset to the video camera. The primary factors dictating the use of a given laser sensor include the sensor’s measurement range, resolution, spot diameter, working distance, and ability to work with specular or diffuse surfaces.
LT Active Confocal Lasers:
- For high accuracy and repeatability applications where the expected range of repeatability is 0.2 – 0.5 microns
- Use a combination of light quantity measurement through a fixed circular aperture and the height position of a dynamically focusing objective lens to determine only the peak light quantity value focused at the aperture and calls that the Z displacement position of the observed surface.
LT Active Confocal Lasers can be used on opaque, transparent, translucent, wet, or dry surfaces and materials. The LT 8010 sensor is preferred for ultra-flat and rounded surface features. The LT 8110 sensor is preferred for flat, angled, tapered, step height, or groove depth type surface features.
LK Diffuse Reflective Lasers:
- For high repeatability applications where effective resolution is between 1.0 – 3.0 microns
- Use a Charge Couple Device (CCD) that precisely measures only the peak value of the light quantity distribution intensity of the light beam spot. It finds the peak light intensity value using the pixels of the CCD and calls that the Z displacement position of the surface.
CCD laser triangulation systems are subject to variations in Z-axis displacement measurement due to variations of light intensity (surface reflections) throughout the entire light spot. The LK series sensors have less resolution than the LC but can accommodate a very wide range of surfaces.
Digital Megapixel Camera
Available digital megapixel cameras offer significant advantages for precision metrology. The larger pixel array provides a larger field of view, while greater pixel density provides higher resolution. A larger field of view can improve throughput by capturing more part information with less stage motion. High pixel density improves accuracy and repeatability at a given magnification.
VIEW Micro-Metrology systems are available with digital megapixel cameras in either color or black and white. For attribute inspection applications, true color processing is now possible.
No matter which camera is used, VIEW Micro-Metrology measurement performance leads the competition. The Digital Camera Offers a larger field of view
Continuous Image Capture (CiC)
CiC™ measurement takes “snapshots” of a part image as the part is continually moved beneath the system optics. VIEW Micro-Metrology’s exclusive CiC technique can map a large surface area, stitching together individual images so they can be analyzed as a whole. Depending on the part geometry being measured, cycle time is reduced significantly without compromising measurement performance.
Area Multi-Focus (AMF)
3D Surface Measurement AMF™ is an advanced video analysis technique that uses the data collected from a normal video auto-focus step and turns it into a 3D image of a feature. In addition to 3D information, it provides height or depth measurement of multiple features of a single image.
This technique can be used to measure flatness, roughness, height, and volume. It is faster than any scanning method requiring XY stage motion. This is yet another example of VIEW Micro-Metrology’s commitment to advancing technology for video metrology applications. AMF is part of VIEW Micro-Metrology’s technology.
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